The workflow should ultimately become an explicit object linked to the paper. There are several research efforts that are relevant here. Significant coordination is happening through the W3C Health Care and Life Sciences (HCLS) Interest Group. In particular, the W3C HCLS Scientific Discourse Task Force is looking at representing the provenance and relationships among hypotheses and claims of different scientific articles so they can be better related to one another to facilitate understanding of the state of the art in a scientific area. We summarize relevant annotation vocabularies and HCLS activities here.
There are several vocabularies that represent some form of scientific provenance. The Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine (SWAN) vocabulary is used to represent hypotheses and claims and relate them to scientific publications and authors. SWAN includes the Provenance, Authoring, and Version (PAV) vocabulary to represent authorship. A mapping of SWAN to OPM was carried out as part of the W3C Provenance XG activities.
The SWAN vocabulary was aligned as part of the Task Force with the Semantically Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC).
A recent effort is DEXI (Data + Experiment), a vocabulary that unifies SWAN, OBI, MO, and myExperiment.
The Task Force is also developing rethorical document models to represent scientific document structure that integrates SWAN with other discourse representations, as well as connecting with bibliographic ontologies such as PRISM and CiTO.
The Ontology of Rethorical Blocks (ORB) which focuses on the markup of scientific articles with salient sections as well as authorship relations.
Current discussions include representing research objects and nanopublications and annotating their provenance.